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Aluminium oxide is a polar ionic compound with a linear geometry. It adopts a linear geometry due to the large electronegativity difference between the Al and O atoms and dominant repulsive electrostatic interactions. Its sp2 hybridization and trigonal planar shape make it an excellent material for many applications, including electrical insulation, catalysis, and abrasion protection.
The valence electrons of the aluminium atom are three, and the oxygen atom has six valence electrons in its outermost shell orbital. As per the octet rule, the aluminum atoms donate their three valence electrons to the oxygen atoms. This chemical bond results in a positive charge on the two aluminum atoms and a negative charge on the three oxygen atoms.
It is a polar compound as the partial positive charge on the Al atom attracts the more electronegative O atom to it. This generates dipoles which shows polar nature.
Molecular compounds are those that have strong covalent bonds between the atoms. They have closed packing of atoms and can be formed into a specific crystal form that is hard to break or melt.
Lone pairs are unshared electrons on the atom or molecule which can be formed from the free electrons that exist in the valence shell. It is the reason why the Al2O3 lewis structure has a total of 6 lone pair electrons.
It has a 120-degree bond angle. This happens because the atom that is central to the ionic bond loses its 3 valence electrons in the process of the ionic bonding with the two O atoms. It is important to note that this ionic bonding takes place within the alpha and beta-stable region of the molecule. This makes it possible to have a 120-degree bond angle for the Al2O3 lewis structure.