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Typically, Cr2O3 ceramics are manufactured with alumina based additives. They are also engineered by a selection of bonding techniques.
A ternary system with Cr2O3 and Al2O3 has a large region of corundum solid solutions. It also has a region of continuous solid solutions below the solidus line. These two regions form the basis for more complex combinations.
Cr2O3 has a relatively low free energy value of -421KJ/mol. The Cr2O3 + Al reaction is a redox reaction and is exothermic. However, the oxidation state of the chromium oxide is dependent on its oxidation state. A metal chromium oxide has less oxidation state than the aluminum oxide.
A quaternary system has a large miscibility gap. This system is more realistic when equilibria in solids are considered. However, it is difficult to make a crystal from the chromium oxide alone. In such a case, the chromium oxide crystal would have too many chromium atoms.
In a quaternary system, the adsorbent surface becomes less protonated with increasing pH. Cr(III) cations, however, are less electrostatically attracted to the adsorbent surface. Therefore, the activation energy is close to that of the conduction process on the reduced catalyst.
In this study, a solvothermal microwave irradiation technique was used to produce nanoparticles of Cr2O3. The adsorption of chromium (III) on the adsorbent was studied by performing a series of experiments. The effect of different parameters such as adsorbent surface area, dopant (Al) concentration, and heating rate were investigated. Ultimately, an efficient adsorption method for trivalent chromium removal from waste water was developed.